Ano 2019

Vol. 66

No. 5

Characterization of arrowroot starch in different agronomic managements

Maranta arundinacea L.; phytotechnical management; planting density; planting systems; unconventional vegetables; water management.

Arrowroot is a plant originated in Latin America that has aroused interest in the food industry due to its high starch

content, with differentiated characteristics and high commercial value. However, information on the management of

arrowroot are scarce, precluding its commercial competition with other similar species, being necessary further studies

with the crop. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize extracted starch from arrowroot grown under

different agronomic management. Three agronomic factors were studied: planting systems (PS), forms of water

management (WM) and planting density (PD). The experimental analyses were performed in a completely randomized

design (CRD) with three replicates, being evaluated the extraction yield, percent composition, quantity of starch, pH,

titratable acidity, swelling power, solubility and electron microscopy analysis. In general, the analyzed extracted starches

deriving from different agronomic treatments have low crude fiber, besides typical characteristics of arrowroot extracted

starch such as texture, color, shape and size of granules, without any other apparent particle than the starch itself,

indicating extraction efficiency. However, the planting density may have contributed to influence some parameters of

the chemical composition of the extracted starch, such as the content of starch, ash, ether extract, protein and carbohydrate

fraction.

323 - 332

Factors related to the economic performance of wheat commercial fields

Triticum aestivum; production cost; gross margin; multivariate; principal components

The variability of agronomic performance and of input use level of wheat commercial fields allows the identification

of the factors with the greatest contribution to its economic performance. The objective of this work was to identify the

main factors related to the variability of economic performance in wheat commercial fields in the Southern Region of

Paraná State. The study was based on data from 65, 64 and 80 farms in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. The variables

evaluated were: costs of fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, fungicide and seed; grain yield; and simplified gross margin

(SGM). Data were subjected to Principal Components Analysis followed by Cluster Analysis. The variability of wheat

economic performance was mainly related to grain yield, fertilizers cost and seed costs. Grain yield is one of the most

important factors to determination of economic performance of wheat commercial fields in the studied region, and a

greater investment in fertilizers and with seeds can decrease it. It must be considered that the cost reduction might be

obtained with suitable management practices, and the contribution of items of cost analyzed to economic performance

may be different in each cropping season probably due to variations of the cost profile and grain yield.

333 - 340

Fruit quality in Hass avocado and its relationships with different growing areas under tropical zones

fatty acids; added value; planted area; multivariate analysis.

Avocado is currently an important crop in Colombia, given its growth in planted area and the increase in exports.

The destination market of Colombian avocado is mainly international, and its quality is outstanding. However, the

physical and chemical characteristics associated with the quality of the avocados produced are not currently well

known in Colombia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical and nutritional parameters associated

with the quality of Hass avocado in eight localities of the department of Antioquia based on descriptive statistics.

Additionally, the quality was related to the localities through a multivariate analysis. As a result, quality at preharvest

parameters of Hass avocados cultivated in Antioquia is similar or superior to that reported internationally based on

physical and chemical variables. In addition, a relationship was established between the quality of fruits and the plots

where these were cultivated, which allowed discriminating fruits by their region of origin. This work shows an approach

to the determination of quality parameters in Hass avocado in Colombia and how they can be related to the characteristics

of its productive system, which can lead to defining a product with added value.

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Intercropping with Tropaeolum majus and fertilization with chicken manure on yield of Allophylus edulis

nasturtium; vacum; organic waste; plant arrangement

Proper crop management is essential for preservation of medicinal plants of the Cerrado. There is no report of ex-situ

cultivation of Allophylus edulis (vacum), which is used for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, in intercropping

with Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intercropping

with nasturtium and fertilization with chicken manure on yield of vacum. The experiment consisted of six treatments:

monocrop vacum without chicken manure; monocrop vacum with hicken manure; monocrop nasturtium without chicken

manure; monocrop nasturtium with chicken manure; vacum intercropped with nasturtium without chicken manure and

vacum intercropped with nasturtium with chicken manure. The crop cycle of vacum took 540 days after transplanting

and, during this period, nasturtium was cultivated in two cycles, in 2017 and 2018. Vacum showed greater height growth

and production of fresh and dry masses of leaves in single cultivation with chicken manure fertilization. Nasturtium

showed greater growth and flower production in monocrop cultivation with chicken manure fertiliazation, in the first

cycle. The intercropping vacum with nasturtium was effective, showing Equivalent Area Ratio (EAR) of 1.16 and 1.18

without and with chicken manure, respectively.

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Shoot proliferation, leaf anatomy and pigment content of Eugenia dysenterica growing in conventional and natural ventilation systems

cagaiteira; in vitro growth system; natural ventilation; plant tissue culture

Natural ventilation micropropagation systems differ from conventional systems by allowing gas exchange between

the internal and external media of the culture flask. The objective of this work was to compare the conventional system

of in vitro propagation of Eugenia dysenterica (Mart.) DC. with a natural ventilation system. For shooting, explants

were inoculated into test tubes with conventional lids and natural ventilation lids (NV), and WPM medium supplemented

with four concentrations levels of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP). The position of explants in each plant was considered by

identifying buds as more proximate to the root, or to the apex, or in an intermediate position. Plant growth in the natural

ventilation system was superior to that in the conventional system, with a 448.53% increase in leaf number, 85.64%

increase in chlorophyll a levels and 74.90% increase in chlorophyll b levels. Plants with intermediate buds exhibited

better results. Foliar anatomical analysis revealed abnormalities in leaves grown in the conventional system such as

“giant” stomata, which remain always open. Our results indicate that the use of natural ventilation improves the water

loss regulation capacity in micropropagated E. dysenterica plants and may favor plants survival and growth after

transference to the natural environment.

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Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil microemulsions

biofilm; plants antibacterial; disinfectant; secondary plant metabolism; bacterial pathogens

The objective of the study was to determine the antimicrobial activity antibiofilm and to identify the main components

of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Cymbopogon flexuosus. The antibacterial and antibiofilm activity

was determined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella

Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117. The effect of EO on biofilm was evaluated by

quantifying viable cell number (CFU) and biomass by crystal violet (CV) analysis. The composition of the essential oils

was determined by GC / FID and GC / MS. The results showed action against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and S.

Typhimurium with MIC and MBC values of 3.9 μL mL-1, thus showing satisfactory antimicrobial activity, given this was

the lowest concentration tested. For the antibiofilm activity, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) was observed for S.

typhimurium and S. aureus. Biofilm biomass significantly reduced only for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. EO presented

the geranial and neral isomers as major components.

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Phytotoxic potential of aqueous leaf extract of Tocoyena formosa and Rudgea viburnoides

Lactuca sativa L.; bioassays; aqueous extract; germination

Plants have organic components produced as secondary metabolites able to positively or negatively interfere on

normal development of other species. The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effects of aqueous

leaf extract from two species Rubiaceae family: Tocoyena formosa and Rudgea viburnoides on the germination and

initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). The extract was obtained from mixing 50 g of fresh leaf and 500 mL of

distilled water. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design for each specie, subjected to five extract

concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%; and 4 repetitions of 50 seed each. The bioassays were performed in laboratory at

controlled temperature and luminosity during seven days. Results showed that the aqueous extract of both species do

not affected the germination and the percent of abnormal lettuce seedlings. R. viburnoides showed no pronounced

difference in relation to shoot length and dry biomass; however, the root length was reduced by 85%. The extract of T.

formosa at higher concentrations, drastically reduce the dry biomass and length of shoots and roots. Therefore, both

species have phytotoxic effect on seedling growth of lettuce being the length root the most affected variable.

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Nutrient stock and nutritional efficiency of woody species in dry tropical forest as reforestation indicators

biomass; caatinga; nutritional content; nutrient use.

Efficient forest species can be indicated for reforesting environments, which present nutritional restriction. The

objective of this study was to determine the nutrient stock in leaf biomass of the species of greatest importance value

(IV) in a tropical dry forest fragment, as well as to evaluate the nutritional efficiency of these species as reforestation

indicators. A phytosociological study of the woody species was carried out defining the ten species with the greatest

IV. Three individuals of each species were selected and sampled, with 25 leaves being collected from the middle part of

the crown of each individual. The N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents were determined in these leaves and the leaf biomass

was estimated by an allometric equation, calculating the stock of these nutrients and the nutritional efficiency of the

species. The Schinopsis brasiliensis and Mimosa tenuiflora species can be recommended in environments with

restricted P availability, and Spondias tuberosa can additionally be indicated to populate areas with low levels of K and

Mg in the soil. Differences in the nutritional efficiency of the species can be attributed to the differences in the

absorption and translocation capacity, as well as the utilization of these nutrients.

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Soybean in succession to the residue of the sorghum/Paiaguás grass straw with Azospirillum brasilense

crop-livestock integration; Glycine max (L.) Merril; Urochloa brizantha

One of the alternatives to achieve agriculture with sustainability and reduction in production costs, mainly with

fertilizers, is the formation of straw from the previous crop and the use of genus Azospirillum bacteria. The objective

of this study was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and yield of soybean, cultivated in areas under straw of

sorghum regrowth inoculated or not with diazotrophic bacteria, single or intercropped with Paiaguás grass under

Integrated System of Agricultural Production, in Cerrado region. The experiments were carried out in the field, in 2015

and 2016, in Selvíria, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It was used a complete randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial

arrangement, with four replications, in two agricultural years: with the cultivation of dual-purpose and grain sorghum,

single or intercropped with Paiaguás grass, with or without inoculating sorghum seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum

brasilense. Soybean production and yield components were evaluated. Inoculation of grain or dual-purpose sorghum

seeds with Azospirillum brasilense intercropped with Paiaguás grass, before soybean cultivation, increased the

components of production and grain yield of soybean in succession.

395 - 401

Germination and fungal infection of wild celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds, from southern Brazil, under different temperature and disinfection conditions

acetic acid; fungi; sodium hypochlorite; prophylaxis.

Seeds of wild celery (Apium graveolens L.) from southern Brazil were surface disinfected with different solutions of

sodium hypochlorite (5 and 10%) and acetic acid (0.5, 1, 2, 4%), and germination success and fungal infection were

evaluated after 28 days of incubation at a constant temperature of 30 ºC and 20/30 ºC thermoperiod (12h:12h). Germination

of wild celery was inhibited at the constant temperature (30 ºC). Vigorous total germination (90–100%), a faster germination

velocity (1.8–2.5 germinated seeds per day) and moderate fungal infection (53.3–81.7%) of wild celery seeds were

obtained with the sodium hypochlorite treatments (5–10% concentration) under the 20/30 ºC thermoperiod. The 4%

treatment of acetic acid was very effective at preventing seed fungal infection (only 5% of the seeds) but it reduced the

average total germination to 60%. Lower concentrations of acetic acid (0.5–2%) resulted in 100% fungal infection. In

conclusion, seedlings of wild celery from southern Brazil can be effectively produced by disinfecting the seeds with 5–

10% sodium hypochlorite and incubation under a 20/30 ºC thermoperiod (12h:12h).

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